THE ROUTING PROVIDERS OF INTERNET PROTOCOL RESOURCES, LAYER 4
The Routing/Pathway Providers of Internet Protocol Resources, Layer 4 consist primarily of Tier1, Tier 2 & some Tier 3 ISPs, Telco pathway/routing providers and Autonomous Systems (AS). These pathway/routing providers are companies that own, operate, and sell access to the internet’s backbone infrastructure and services. The primary customers for these pathway/routing providers are generally smaller Tier 2 and Tier 3 routing/pathway providers like the ISP & Network Providers of Internet Protocol Resources, last mile, Layer 5 who connect primarily to Tier 1 the Routing/Pathway Providers of Internet Protocol Resources Layer 4 for delivery of their customers Internet protocol packets destined for ISP’s outside of their footprint. The binding element of the cyber ecosystem of Internet protocol resources is that networks (ASNs) share a common IP addressing (packet travel) system and global Border Gateway Protocol, which is the routing framework that allows all these ASN networks to interconnect with each other directly or indirectly. The Routing/Pathway Providers of Internet Protocol Resources, Layer 4 providers route all traffic using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), which is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet.
The Distributors of Internet Protocol Resources, Layer 3, the Routing/Pathway Providers of Internet Protocol Resources, Layer 4 and the ISP & Network Providers of Internet Protocol Resources, last mile, Layer 5, are closely aligned with the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace (GCSC) definition of “the public core of the Internet”, which includes such critical elements of the infrastructure of the Internet as packet routing and forwarding, naming and numbering systems, the cryptographic mechanisms of security and identity, transmission media, software, and data centers.